On this page you will find relevant scientific literature on the subject of fever.

- mostly directly linked to the original publications.

Author: David.martin(at)med.uni-tuebingen.de

  1. Sullivan, J.E. and H.C. Farrar, Fever and antipyretic use in children. Pediatrics, 2011. 127(3): p. 580-7.
  2. Mackowiak PA, Boulant JA. Fever’s glass ceiling. Clin Infect Dis. März 1996;22(3):525–36.
  3. Richardson, M. and E. Purssell, Who’s afraid of fever? Archives of Disease in Childhood, 2015. 100(9): p. 818-820.
  4. Elemraid, M.A., et al., Risk factors for the development of pleural empyema in children. Pediatr Pulmonol, 2015. 50(7): p. 721-6.
  5. El-Radhi, A.S., Why is the evidence not affecting the practice of fever management? Arch Dis Child, 2008. 93(11): p. 918-20.
  6. Martin, D.D., Fever: Views in Anthroposophic Medicine and Their Scientific Validity. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2016. 2016: p. 13.
  7. Small, P.M., et al., Influence of body temperature on bacterial growth rates in experimental pneumococcal meningitis in rabbits. Infect Immun, 1986. 52(2): p. 484-7.
  8. El-Radhi, A.S. and S. Banajeh, Effect of fever on recurrence rate of febrile convulsions. Arch Dis Child, 1989. 64(6): p. 869-70.
  9. El-Radhi, A.S. and W. Barry, Do antipyretics prevent febrile convulsions? Archives of Disease in Childhood, 2003. 88(7): p. 641-642.
  10. Strengell, T., et al., Antipyretic agents for preventing recurrences of febrile seizures: randomized controlled trial. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 2009. 163(9): p. 799-804.
  11. Ostberg, J.R. and E.A. Repasky, Emerging evidence indicates that physiologically relevant thermal stress regulates dendritic cell function. Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2006. 55(3): p. 292-8.
  12. Hanson, D.F., Fever, temperature, and the immune response. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1997. 813: p. 453-64.
  13. Blatteis, C.M., Endotoxic fever: new concepts of its regulation suggest new approaches to its management. Pharmacol Ther, 2006. 111(1): p. 194-223.
  14. Hajdu, S., et al., Increased temperature enhances the antimicrobial effects of daptomycin, vancomycin, tigecycline, fosfomycin, and cefamandole on staphylococcal biofilms. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 2010. 54(10): p. 4078-84.
  15. Glöckler, M., W. Goebel, and K. Michael, Kindersprechstunde. Ein medizinisch-pädagogischer Ratgeber. 2018: Verlag Urachhaus.
  16. Glöckler, M. and W. Goebel, A Guide to Child Health. A Holistic Approach to Raising Healthy Children. 4th edition ed. 2013: Floris Books.
  17. Kluger, M.J., et al., The adaptive value of fever. Infect Dis Clin North Am, 1996. 10(1): p. 1-20.
  18. Hill, D., et al., Media and Young Minds. Vol. 138. 2016.
  19. Ulbricht, M., Antipyretische Wirkung eines körperwarmen Einlaufes. 1991, Inaugural-Dissertation: Tübingen.
  20. Hamre, H.J., et al., Anthroposophic vs. conventional therapy of acute respiratory and ear infections: a prospective outcomes study. Wien Klin Wochenschr, 2005. 117(7-8): p. 256-68.
  21. Jeschke, E., et al., Verordnungsverhalten anthroposophisch orientierter Ärzte bei akuten Infektionen der oberen Atemwege. Complementary Medicine Research, 2007. 14(4): p. 207-215.
  22. Soldner, G. and H.M. Stellmann, Individuelle Pädiatrie. Leibliche, seelische und geistige Aspekte in Diagnostik und Beratung. Anthroposophisch-homöopathische Therapie. 2018: Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft Stuttgart.
  23. Soldner, G., H.M. Stellmann, and D. Martin, Individual Paediatrics. Physical, emotional and spiritual aspects of diagnosis and counseling. 2014: Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft Stuttgart.
  24. Girke, M., Innere Medizin. Grundlagen und therapeutische Konzepte der Anthroposophischen Medizin. 2012: Salumed Verlag.
  25. Mackowiak, P.A., Concepts of fever. Arch Intern Med, 1998. 158(17): p. 1870-81.
  26. Kluger, M.J., Phylogeny of fever. Fed Proc, 1979. 38(1): p. 30-4.
  27. Blatteis, C.M., Fever: is it beneficial? Yale J Biol Med, 1986. 59(2): p. 107-16.
  28. Bernheim, H.A. and M.J. Kluger, Fever: effect of drug-induced antipyresis on survival. Science, 1976. 193(4249): p. 237-9.
  29. Eyers, S., et al., The effect on mortality of antipyretics in the treatment of influenza infection: systematic review and meta-analysis. J R Soc Med, 2010. 103(10): p. 403-11.
  30. Doran, T.F., et al., Acetaminophen: more harm than good for chickenpox? J Pediatr, 1989. 114(6): p. 1045-8.
  31. Brandts, C.H., et al., Effect of paracetamol on parasite clearance time in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Lancet, 1997. 350(9079): p. 704-9.
  32. Schulman, C.I., et al., The effect of antipyretic therapy upon outcomes in critically ill patients: a randomized, prospective study. Surg Infect (Larchmt), 2005. 6(4): p. 369-75.
  33. Mackowiak, P.A., Direct effects of hyperthermia on pathogenic microorganisms: Teleologic implications with regard to fever. Rev Infect Dis, 1981. 3(3): p. 508-20.
  34. Mackowiak, P.A. and M. Marling-Cason, Hyperthermic enhancement of serum antimicrobial activity: mechanism by which fever might exert a beneficial effect on the outcome of gram-negative sepsis. Infect Immun, 1983. 39(1): p. 38-42.
  35. Appenheimer, M.M., et al., Impact of fever-range thermal stress on lymphocyte-endothelial adhesion and lymphocyte trafficking. Immunol Invest, 2005. 34(3): p. 295-323.
  36. Roberts, N.J., Jr., Temperature and host defense. Microbiol Rev, 1979. 43(2): p. 241-59.
  37. Plaisance, K.I., et al., Effect of antipyretic therapy on the duration of illness in experimental influenza A, Shigella sonnei, and Rickettsia rickettsii infections. Pharmacotherapy, 2000. 20(12): p. 1417-22.
  38. Bryant, R.E., et al., Factors affecting mortality of gram-negative rod bacteremia. Arch Intern Med, 1971. 127(1): p. 120-8.
  39. Ahkee, S., L. Srinath, and J. Ramirez, Community-acquired pneumonia in the elderly: association of mortality with lack of fever and leukocytosis. South Med J, 1997. 90(3): p. 296-8.
  40. Southey, E.R., K. Soares-Weiser, and J. Kleijnen, Systematic review and meta-analysis of the clinical safety and tolerability of ibuprofen compared with paracetamol in paediatric pain and fever. Curr Med Res Opin, 2009. 25(9): p. 2207-22.
  41. Souyri, C., et al., Severe necrotizing soft-tissue infections and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Clin Exp Dermatol, 2008. 33(3): p. 249-55.
  42. Ford, L.M. and J. Waksman, Necrotizing fasciitis during primary varicella. Pediatrics, 2000. 105(6): p. 1372-3; author reply 1373-5.
  43. Veenstra, R.P., et al., Fulminant necrotizing fasciitis and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Intensive Care Med, 2001. 27(11): p. 1831.
  44. Hidalgo-Carballal, A. and M.P. Suarez-Mier, Sudden unexpected death in a child with varicella caused by necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Am J Forensic Med Pathol, 2006. 27(1): p. 93-6.
  45. Weng, T.C., et al., Ibuprofen worsens Streptococcus pyogenes soft tissue infections in mice. J Microbiol Immunol Infect, 2011. 44(6): p. 418-23.
  46. Byington, C.L., et al., An epidemiological investigation of a sustained high rate of pediatric parapneumonic empyema: risk factors and microbiological associations. Clin Infect Dis, 2002. 34(4): p. 434-40.
  47. Francois, P., et al., Prevalence and risk factors of suppurative complications in children with pneumonia. Acta Paediatr, 2010. 99(6): p. 861-6.
  48. Le Bourgeois, M., et al., Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug without Antibiotics for Acute Viral Infection Increases the Empyema Risk in Children: A Matched Case-Control Study. J Pediatr, 2016. 175: p. 47-53.e3.
  49. Voiriot, G., et al., Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs may affect the presentation and course of community-acquired pneumonia. Chest, 2011. 139(2): p. 387-394.
  50. Mikaeloff, Y., A. Kezouh, and S. Suissa, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and the risk of severe skin and soft tissue complications in patients with varicella or zoster disease. Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2008. 65(2): p. 203-9.
  51. Beasley, R., et al., Association between paracetamol use in infancy and childhood, and risk of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema in children aged 6-7 years: analysis from Phase Three of the ISAAC programme. Lancet, 2008. 372(9643): p. 1039-48.
  52. Etminan, M., et al., Acetaminophen use and the risk of asthma in children and adults: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Chest, 2009. 136(5): p. 1316-1323.
  53. Perzanowski, M.S., et al., Prenatal acetaminophen exposure and risk of wheeze at age 5 years in an urban low-income cohort. Thorax, 2010. 65(2): p. 118-23.
  54. Kanabar, D., S. Dale, and M. Rawat, A review of ibuprofen and acetaminophen use in febrile children and the occurrence of asthma-related symptoms. Clin Ther, 2007. 29(12): p. 2716-23.
  55. Ludvigsson, J.F. and F.T.A.S. GROUP, Epidemiological study of constipation and other gastrointestinal symptoms in 8000 children. Acta Paediatrica, 2006. 95(5): p. 573-580.
  56. Lesko, S.M. and A.A. Mitchell, An assessment of the safety of pediatric ibuprofen. A practitioner-based randomized clinical trial. Jama, 1995. 273(12): p. 929-33.
  57. Nourjah, P., et al., Estimates of acetaminophen (Paracetomal)-associated overdoses in the United States. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2006. 15(6): p. 398-405.
  58. Liew, W.K., et al., Severe Anaphylactic Reaction to Ibuprofen in a Child With Recurrent Urticaria. Vol. 120. 2007. e742-4.
  59. Bachmeyer, C., et al., Acetaminophen (paracetamol)-induced anaphylactic shock. South Med J, 2002. 95(7): p. 759-60.
  60. Jain, S.S., S. Green, and M. Rose, Anaphylaxis following intravenous paracetamol: the problem is the solution. Anaesth Intensive Care, 2015. 43(6): p. 779-81.
  61. Graham, N.M., et al., Adverse effects of aspirin, acetaminophen, and ibuprofen on immune function, viral shedding, and clinical status in rhinovirus-infected volunteers. J Infect Dis, 1990. 162(6): p. 1277-82.
  62. Husseini, R.H., et al., Elevation of nasal viral levels by suppression of fever in ferrets infected with influenza viruses of differing virulence. J Infect Dis, 1982. 145(4): p. 520-4.
  63. Earn, D.J., P.W. Andrews, and B.M. Bolker, Population-level effects of suppressing fever. Proc Biol Sci, 2014. 281(1778): p. 20132570.
  64. Evans, S.S., E.A. Repasky, and D.T. Fisher, Fever and the thermal regulation of immunity: the immune system feels the heat. Nat Rev Immunol, 2015. 15(6): p. 335-49.